292 0 obj <>stream Inflorescence: 10-40 cm long (9-25 cm S. foliosa) with dense colorless flowers. In the native range of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflorain the United States, soil nematode genus richness and diversity decreased with increasing latitude, with genus richness at lower latitudes being almost twice that at higher latitudes. 0 The velocity zone, where 3 foot waves are expected in storms, is seaward of the MHW as shown on the plan. Shoreline protection may be characterized as “hard,” such as rock revetments, or “soft,” Science 306:968-969, https://bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation/src/2e0870ddd59836b60bcf96646a41e87ea5a5943a/coarse grained fna xml/V25/V25 854.xml, Copyright is held by the Flora of North America Association for all volumes except Volumes 24 and 25 (Poaceae). List of Figures . Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. 0000001276 00000 n This narrow band stretches for approximately 0.25 miles. Copyright for Volumes 24 and 25 is held by Utah State University. Pure S. alterniflora grows within the lower elevational marsh zones in its native range but, in San Francisco Bay, its hybrids with S. foliosa grow both below and above the range of that species. Biological control using other natural enemy species from the native range of smooth cordgrass is an unlikely option in California because of the presence of the native California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) which would also be impacted. 0000025563 00000 n glabra Spartina alterniflora Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, var. S. alternifloracan spread vegetatively via under-ground rhizome expansion of individual clones, or it can reproduce sexually via wind-dispersed pollen. Geographic subdivisions for Spartina alterniflora: CCo (San Francisco Bay) MAP CONTROLS 1. <<5BBFF29AB3E31543A76073B1C2D79928>]>> x�b```b``�a`e`��� �� @16� +ux�x�xbrdf6 5t 3. xref 0000012223 00000 n 0000000892 00000 n %%EOF Spartina alterniflora is now a major weed problem in southeastern China (Normile 2004). 0000004129 00000 n The native range of S.alterniﬂora, from Mexico in the Gulf of Mexico to Nova Scotia in North America, has a broad spectrum of abiotic conditions of temperature, growing degree 0000047827 00000 n The leaf blades are 3 to 25 mm wide. (Poaceae), native to the eastern United States, was introduced unintentionally into Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) at around 2010. A process-based grid model for the simulation of range expansion of Spartina alterniﬂora on the coastal saltmarshes in the Yangtze Estuary. Additionally, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation service describes S. alternifloraas a grass with long hollow rhizomes. BASIONYM: Spartina glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non Curtis 1787. Leaf sheaths of S. alterniflora and hybrids may be various shades of maroon at the base of the culms (white-green of S. foliosa). endstream endobj 291 0 obj <>/Size 264/Type/XRef>>stream 0000002994 00000 n It is native to the eastern United States, but is considered invasive, in salt marshes, in … In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. 0000000016 00000 n Spartina alterniflora which is identified on the plan as salt marsh. 0000011514 00000 n Spartina alterniflora Loisel. The microcosm has a 38-cm spring tide range, with a neap to spring high tide difference of 9cm. Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. Our native plant nursery also has many other species available throughout the year. 0000006522 00000 n Smooth cordgrass spreads rapidly by rhizomatous roots. x�bb2d`b``Ń3� �� ��� It hybridizes with S. maritima in Europe, with S. pectinata in Massachusetts, and with S. foliosa in California. • The fungal co-occurrence network was simplified with the invasion. We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. conditions, but generally will range from 24” to 72.” Colonies tend to grow parallel to and continuous along shorelines; the width and thickness of a vegetative colony is controlled by a number of site-specific conditions such as elevation, shoreline-slope, and frequency, depth, and duration of flooding. 0000004598 00000 n 0000007319 00000 n S. alterniflora was established in the upper half of the neap range and S. patens in … Chinese mangrove ecosystems are vulnerable to the invasive species Spartina alterniflora (a perennial herb), which is native to North America and was introduced to China in 1979 to accelerate the deposition and stabilization of tidal flats .In the past few decades, Spartina alterniflora has become one of the dominant species in the coastal wetlands in China due to its unique … ,l0\t8��tICCơ6��=8�z4�\�ڌ$�79��F�_q ���YI�HB)c���EG�=@���ȟ�%�X,����h�:A(BX�P!�����X�7�0]`S���`��4#dǵˌ�+,x/,�r�mPgx�x�y�_��pC ��R��o��8� m��hk� [ 6d`ԝ���W���֖1^��$ ς��� �f� � )AN In its native range, decomposed smooth cordgrass provides an important source of food for crabs and other invertebrates and cordgrass marshes are nursery grounds for juvenile fishes and blue crabs. Native Range: Newfoundland to lower St. Lawrence R., Que, s. to NJ; Locally naturalized in w Europe (Fernald 1950) Appearance Spartina alterniflora is a perennial grass that expands via underground rhizomes. Spartina glabra 1916. Figure 1. Expanding trade with China creates ecological backlash. THE GUT, WELLFLEET . It ranges from 2 to 7 feet tall and has leaf blades that are … Spartina alterniflora invasion significantly decreased soil fungal richness. 0000003336 00000 n It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. 0000005609 00000 n Sheaths mostly glabrous, throat glabrous or minutely pilose, lower sheaths often wrinkled; ligules 1-2 mm; blades to 60 cm long, 3-25 mm wide, lower blades shorter than those above, usually flat basally, becoming involute distally, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, margins usually smooth, sometimes slightly scabrous, apices attenuate. Please see. Download with Google Download with Facebook. 2. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. S. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass that grows initially in round, genetically similar, clumps ranging between 0.5-3m in height, eventually forming extensive monoculture meadows. Zhenming Ge. 2n = 62. For an availability please contact us by phone or e-mail. GREAT ISLAND, WELLFLEET . 0000002370 00000 n Together, our results suggested that tall- and short-form S. alterniflora can host their specific rhizosphere microbial communities and had different strategies of N usage via selecting the composition of rhizosphere bacterial assemblages, which in turn might determine the growth and invasiveness of S. alterniflora in its introduced range.
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